1: San Miguel Church in Santa Fe National Park Service, Historic American Building Survey
2: Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe [Ritch, William G.]
3: Penitentes [Harrison, Birge]
SCROLL DOWN TO SELECT A MAP
As I insinuated to your majesty in my first letter, I have never seen so much want, misery, and backwardness in my life. I suspect this land was better before the Spaniards came.
--Francisco Cuervo y Valdés to the king. Santa Fe, 15 April 1706, Archivo General de los Indies 116, doc. 258.
The maps of Tierra Adentro are created by New Mexicans, or visitors to New Mexico, during the period after the Reconquest, under Spanish rule. New Mexico was a remote northern frontier, hemmed in on three sides by hostile tribes, some of whom was receiving arms from French traders pressing their trade toward the poorly-defined and poorly-defended limits of Louisiana.
Pleas to the Spanish government for more military support were too often unheard, although some were accompanied by detailed maps and exhaustive reports, detailing endless tragedies from raids by the Navajo, Ute, Comanche, and Apache. Mournful tales of battles are interspersed with descriptions of productive trade relations with the same tribes.
18th century engineer, cartographer, and santero Bernardo Miera y Pacheco contributed the finest maps of this era. He accompanied Governor Francisco Antonio Marín del Valle on a tour of inspection and produced the 1758 map. In 1776, he enlarged the world's available geographical knowledge, serving as cartographer for Franciscan priests Father Dominguez and Father Escalante in their unsuccessful effort to find an overland trail to California.
Reconstructing missions, and the communities of ranchos they supported, was another great undertaking. Some governors felt secure enough to establish (or re-establish) communities in particularly embattled regions, like north of Santa Fe, or between Socorro and Isleta.
An uneasy peace with the pueblos prevailed, with the priests forbearing in most circumstances to press their "converts" too hard, and Pueblos and Spaniards alike sharing in the poverty and fear of battle, disease, and blight. Further symbiosis can be seen in the increase of communities settled by genízaros, Native Americans adopting European ways, and interracial families.
Credits -- 1: [Written, narrated, recorded, directed and produced by Jack Loeffler]; 2: [Written, narrated, recorded, directed and produced by Jack Loeffler]; 3: [Written, narrated, recorded, directed and produced by Jack Loeffler]; 4: [Written, narrated, recorded, directed and produced by Jack Loeffler]; 5: [Written, narrated, recorded, directed and produced by Jack Loeffler]
Hear more about life in La Tierra Adentro
TIMELINE: LA TIERRA ADENTRO
Don Pedro Rodriguez Cubero becomes governor after De Vargas' term expires.
The Keres who had fled from the pueblos of Cieneguilla, Santo Domingo and Cochiti after the reconquest built a new pueblo on a stream called Cubero. This vast plain in that vicinity is also known as the Cubero Plain and was doubtles so named because of the visit of Cubero at this time; the pueblo was known as San Jose de la Laguna, later Laguna Pueblo.
Hopis from surrounding villages destroy Aguatuvi, a Christianized pueblo.
"In the last days or the year 1700, or in the beginning of 1701, the Moquis of the other pueblos fell upon the unsuspecting village at night. The men were mostly killed, stifled in their estufas, it is said; the women and children were dragged into captivity and the houses were burnt...since that time Ahua-Tuyba has belonged to the class of ruined historic pueblos." (Bandelier)
De Vargas returns, Cubero flees.
De Vargas dies of a sudden illness & is buried in Santa Fe parish church. Don Juan Paez Hurtado becomes interim governor.
1705 Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdez becomes governor, appointed by the viceroy Don Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva Enriquez, Duke of Alburquerque.
Juan de Ulibarri crossed Colorado as far as the Arkansas Valley into Kiowa County.
Governor Cuervo founds San Francisco de Alburquerque with 30 familes, resettles Santa Maria de Galisteo (formerly Santa Cruz de Galisteo) with 14 Tanos families from Tesuque, moves some Tehua families to Pojoaque, resettles Villa de La Cañada with 29 families.
Cuervo is ordered to rename Alburquerque to San Felipe de Alburquerque in honor of King Felipe V.
Cuervo is replaced as governor by Don José Chacon Medina Salazar y Villaseñor, Marqués de la Penula, until 1712.
Governor Chacon rebuilt the chapel at San Miguel, which had been sacked in the 1680 uprising
Governor Chacon is replaced by Don Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollon, who is later indicted of malfeasance while in office, but has by that point disappeared. War with the Navajos, discontent among the pueblos. The Utes & Taos at war.
Captain Félix Martinez appointed by the viceroy to governor, puts Mogollon in jail for two years.
Gov. Martinez brings war against the Moquis, writes on Inscription Rock (El Morro) August 26, 1716.
Martinez unwillingly replaced by Captain Antonio Valverde y Cosio, must be compelled to leave for Mexico City.
Governor Antonio Valverde y Cosio leads a fairly bloody campaign against the Comanches; explores Colorado as far as the Platte River, and explores Kansas. Learns of French/ Pawnee/ Jumano conflict with the Apaches. Ordered by the viceory to establish a presidio in Quartelejo (Cuartelejo) currently Beaver Creek, Scott County, KS to prevent the French from trading with Comanches.
Pedro de Villasu explored Colorado and Nebraska.
Don Juan Domingo de Bustamante sworn in as governor (acts until 1731). A convention of religious and secular leaders investigates causes of lack of settlements between Alburquerque - Chihuahua, and cites both poverty, and persistent attacks by local tribes; the report recommends starting a presidio at with Socorro 50 soldiers and 200 settlers.
An investigation by the Viceroy reveals illegal trade in New Mexico with the French, in violation of the King's order prohibiting trade with French from Louisiana. Gov. Bustamante mandates trade with Plains tribes only in Taos or Pecos.
French take Cuartelejo (in Kansas, see above).
Bishop of Durango Benito Crespo makes a visita to New Mexico.
Governor Bustamante is tried on charges of illegal trade (trading with the French) found guilty, and made to pay the costs of his trial. Charges brought by Padre José Antonio Guerrero against the governor that the the Indians were forced to work without pay.
Fray Juan Miguel Menchero comes to New Mexico as visitador.
Gervasio Cruzat y Gí³ngora succeeds Bustamante. He founds a mission among the Jicarilla and serves until 1736.
Don Enrique de Olavide y Micheleña takes over as governor, serves until 1739.
Bishop of Durango Martin de Elizacochea makes a visita and carves his name on Inscription Rock.
Don Gaspar Domingo de Mendoza becomes governor and serves until 1743.
Some Frenchmen come from Louisiana and settle in a place called Cañada near Isleta; Louis Marie Colons shot for his crimes, Jean d'Alay becomes a barber in Santa Fe, and marries a New Mexican woman. Tomé founded by 30 settlers.
After the Rebellion of 1680, Sandia having been burned by the Spaniards, the inhabitants fled to the Hopi country where they built the village of Payupki. In 1742, during the rule of Codallos y Rabal, these refugees were brought back by the frayles Deglado and Pino. Fray Juan Menchero, affirmed that had had been engaged for six years in missionary work with the Indians and had converted more than three hundred and fifty of them, all of whom he had brought from the Hopi province for the purpose of establishing a pueblo at the place called Sandia. When the new pueblo was established six years later, it was given the name of Nuestra Señora de Dolores de San Antonio de Sandia.
Don Joaquin Codallos y Rabal becomes governor, serves until 1747, Colonel Francisco de la Rocha appointed but declines to serve, Rabal continues until 1749.
Don José de Escandí³n explores and settles Rio Grande with seven detachments of soldiers, establishes towns.
Father Juan M. Menchero founds a short-lived settlement of 400- 500 Navajo, at Cebolleta (date is also listed as 1749).
"All went well for a brief time, but in the spring of 1750 there was trouble, which Lieutenant-Governor Bernardo Antonio de Bustamante, with the vice-custodio, Padre Manuel de San Juan Nepomuceno de Trigo, went to investigate. Then the real state of affairs became apparent. Padre Menchero had been liberal with his gifts, and still more so with promises of more; hence his success in bringing Navají³s to Cebolleta. But they said they had not received half the gifts promised, and their present padres-- against whom they had no complaint-- were too poor to make any gifts at all." (Bancroft)
Fr. Menchero travels New Mexico as visitador; on his tour he turns west from Jornada del Muerto, as far as the Gila, then north to Acoma. Don Bernardo Miera y Pacheco serves with Menchero. Thirty-three Frenchmen come to Rio de Jicarilla & sell firearms to the Comanches.
Nuesta Señora de Santa Ana de Camargo (modern Camargo, Tamaulipas, west of McAllen, TX) founded at the confluence of Rio San Juan & Rio Grande.
Don Tomí¡s Velez Cachupin takes over as governor, serves until 1754.
Miera y Pacheco maps area around El Paso, down to La Junta del Rios.
Governor Cachupin battles against the Comanches, gets a commendation from the Viceroy.
Villa of Laredo founded.
Don Bernardo Miera y Pacheco would accompany Gov Marín on his official tour of inspection and, at the governor's expense, he would map the entire province. From late June until December 1, 1757, they were in the field. By the end of April 1758, Miera's elaborate map was ready.
Presidio built at Junta de los Rios ( Texas).
Governor Cachupin retires, mired in opposition by the Franciscans.
Don Francisco Antonio Marin del Valle succeeds him.
Bishop Tamarí³n of Durango makes a visita, and laments the state of affairs at the Pueblo missions, particularly that the priests could not speak the native languages and the Puebloans could not speak enough Spanish to understand the doctrinal teachings.
Del Valle succeeded late in the year by Don Manuel Portillo Urrisola who governed until 1762.
Governor Urrisola replaced by Cachupin again.
Cachupin makes search for mines into the Gunnison area of Colorado.
Manuel de Rivera explored along what is now the Old Spanish Trail as far north as Delta, Colorado.
Captain Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta, knight of Santiago succeeds Cachupin as governor. He asks for a presidio in Taos, and establishes a presidio at Robledo, consisting of 30 soldiers from Santa Fe.
Father Francisco Tomí¡s Garcés explored Arizona, California, and the areas surrounding the Gila and Colorado rivers, While exploring the western Grand Canyon, he met the Hopi people and the Havasupai people . From 1768 to 1776, Father Garces explored with Juan Bautista de Anza and alone with native guides.
Juan Bautista de Anza and Francisco Tomí¡s Garcés explored a route from the presido of Tubac, Arizona, where de Anza was commander, overland to California. De Anza aalso founded the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Jose.
Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Domínguez along with 12 other men, form an expedition to attempt a route to Monterey from Santa Fe. They travel into Colorado, discover and name the Dolores River, north to Rangeley CO, then west into Utah, across the Wasatch Mountains through Spanish Fork Canyon, and to Utah Lake. That winter they traveled south as far as Cedar City before returning to Santa Fe, crossing the Colorado River en route. They were the first Europeans in what is now Utah.